Handling Passwords

There are two reasons I’m writing this post. First, I’ve noticed a slew of articles and blog entries lately about the topic. Now, that’s good from the perspective that it’s an indication of people taking the topic seriously, and also helps to get the word out. Second, I’ve noticed that the authors often have incomplete and/or somewhat inaccurate information, which I’m sure they got from reading someone else’s incomplete and/or inaccurate material. That doesn’t necessarily make it bad, but they write the material with an authoritative tone – because, you know, blog authors are all leading experts in their fields, including fields they decide to wander into on any given day for the sake of a post

For those of you who missed the sarcasm: don’t believe everything you read on the internet, no matter who it comes from. Sounds like common sense, but that includes your favorite bloggers too, no matter how sharp you think they are. And on that note, I’ll give my standard security warning – although I’m pretty handy with math, I do not consider myself a true cryptanalyst. I am a hobbyist, enthusiast, and avid studier of cryptography. While some have considered that would make me something of an expert, I merely study the work of great cryptanalysts and I would prefer to be seen as just a guy who’s about to show you some of the things you need to know. So I encourage you to use this blog post the way you should use any blog post – as a stepping stone to research further, rather than the end-all and final word on the subject. The key being that when it comes to security, most developers just don’t know what they don’t know. Finally, the world of cryptology is steeped in detailed jargon and math formulas. This level of detail is absolutely necessary because in security, the devil is in the tiniest detail (and there are many). However, that level of detail also puts off about 90% of software developers. But since they are the ones who are entrusted with securing software, I will try to keep things at a fairly understandable level. Also, there are a few recent news items related to this topic that just begged to blogged about. So let’s dive right in.

The Importance of Passwords

Authentication is a critical operation for a vast amount of software. Systems need to know who any given user is. All of the user’s access to any given system, what they can and can’t do or see, is determined ultimately by who the system thinks they are. Password authentication works on the principle that a user knows a password that nobody else knows. The software has a record that lets it determine if a given user enters the right password. If they do, the software can be reasonably sure the user is who they claim to be. But in order for that to be effective, you need two things:
1) The password MUST be something that only the user knows. That means that a user must never divulge the password to ANYONE, including operators of the software.
2) It must be physically infeasible for someone else to get a hold of, or guess the password.
In order to get #2 right, the user is responsible for using a password that others can’t feasibly guess. This relates to password strength, which I’ll get to in a minute. It also means that the software must take precautions to forbid anyone but the user from seeing or otherwise getting a hold of the password. This means you should never, EVER, store a password in plain text. Ever. It doesn’t matter who you think has access to the data or not, stuff happens, and before you know it, your entire customer base’s data is in the hands of a malicious data thief. This has happened to MANY large corporations (for example, Citibank) despite their security measures. Besides being bad for business (most states are starting to require companies to publicly divulge when this sort of data compromise happens), some states now have laws that hold you (the data keeper) accountable and liable for data loss and compromise. That means users may be able to sue you if you didn’t do enough to protect their sensitive data.

So why not use something else for authentication? For example, we know DNA, digital fingerprinting, possibly retinal scanning, and other biometrics are unique to a person, and not easily compromised or duplicated. Well, if you lose your finger or eye, it’s gone. If your DNA is ever compromised, you can’t really change it the way you would change your password. It’s compromised forever and you’d be stuck with the option of never doing computerized banking or shopping ever again (which I’m sure would be the least of your worries at that point). So for now, passwords are the “in” thing.

Password Strength

Because this system relies on the basis that only one person knows their password, you, as a user, must be responsible for creating passwords others can’t guess. With only 48 8-bit characters, the possible combinations of letters, numbers, and symbols (before you even touch Unicode) are unfathomable. But there are only a few hundred thousand actual words in any given language, so don’t use real words as passwords. Computers can run through an entire dictionary in less than a second, so breaking such passwords with what’s called “brute force” (checking all possibilities) is extremely easy for a computer. Furthermore, if you use real words, a computer doesn’t have to check all possibilities under some situations (more on that later). But on a computer that can check 1 Billion combinations per second, it would still take tens if not hundreds of trillions of years to go through 48 characters of possible combinations (assuming you could use up all 8 bits in each character). Also remember that as far as brute force attacks are concerned, security improves exponentially (not linearly) with password length. For example, doubling the size of a password doesn’t double the number of combinations, it squares them.

So as far as security goes, you MUST have sufficiently long passwords. I’ve seen systems that require a limited number of characters (around 6 or 8 or so) and this is just not good enough. Anything less than 16 is probably asking for trouble – because on top of the number of bit combinations, people typically only use a limited set of values for each 8-bits (character, assuming non-Unicode). If you only use real words, then a potential data thief has an extremely narrow set of combinations to work with, so it’s important to really mix it up with as many combinations of numbers, letters, and symbols as possible. Also important for both users and software developers is the concept that passwords and validation algorithms must be case-sensitive. In English, with a 26 letter alphabet, you have 52 possible alphabetic characters (upper and lower case), but if your algorithm is case insensitive, you’ve thrown out 26 possibilities for each 8-bit chunk... which drastically reduces the overall effectiveness of the string when considering combinations. Since chances are that you are already working with a set of characters that doesn’t use up all 8 bits to begin with, then you really cripple the system by removing uniqueness based on character case.

This of course, must be balanced with memory (human, not RAM). A password is absolutely no good if the user can’t remember it. So it must be easy enough to remember, and difficult enough to foil guessing. Arbitrary strings of characters usually end up being one or the other, but not both. A lot of passwords are stored in a database, and that becomes one of the most popular reasons for limiting the size. However, there are some techniques which do not limit the size of the password – effectively making them as long as you want (even if they are stored in a database). For such systems, a good alternative is to have a pass phrase. Just like passwords, it’s important to mix things up with letters, numbers, and symbols, but you can use an entire sentence of text (although, you’d probably want to avoid using too many “real” words). It’s easier to remember a phrase of large text than it is to remember an arbitrary albeit smaller string of characters. Unfortunately, few systems allow you to enter as much password text as you want, even if they are capable of storing much larger phrases. However, it is definitely something to consider if you are about to implement a new system. As far as resilience against brute force attacks go, the longer the better.

Storing Passwords

If you are thinking of storing passwords in plain text, just hang up your hat and go home. Leave the system unfinished. It’s simply not worth the future trouble and liability you are subjecting yourself to.  That leaves you the option of somehow scrambling the password so that even if the data is stolen, people won’t be able to discover anyone’s password. At this point, I really need to re-iterate rule #1 of encryption: Do not EVER invent your own data protection algorithm. I know you think you are smart, have an advanced degree, and have been programming since [insert your favorite archaic system here]. But unless you are a cryptanalyst [expert], you will regret it. Data thieves don’t care about your pedigree, and as smart as you think you are, the odds are definitely in their favor, not yours. In fact, crypto-systems’ strength isn’t necessarily measured by the intelligence of the person who came up with the algorithm. Many extremely smart people (I’ll wager smarter than both you and I put together) have created systems that ultimately failed at the hands of some malicious hacker.  Secure systems have withstood many years of attacks and analysis. That’s what you should go with – a standard that has a proven track record with no vulnerabilities found.

Now is a good time to point out there are fundamentally two types of data protection primitives in use: encryption and cryptographic hash codes. The main difference between the two (although many details differ) is that encryption entails an algorithm that can both encrypt and decrypt text – that is to say, it can encrypt a chunk of plain text, and subsequently, it can decrypt the scrambled data back into plain text. On the other hand, cryptographic hash codes are one-way. You can’t “decode” a hash result back into the original plain text.

There are many encryption schemes and algorithms out there, but for the sake of this conversation, let’s just say that all the useful ones require keys. These keys must be securely stored. If an attacker gets hold of the keys, they can decode your entire database of passwords, and at that point, the passwords might as well have been in plain text to begin with. Effective “key management” is very difficult, and I’ll postulate that you shouldn’t have to return scrambled passwords back to plain text anyway (more on that later).

Cryptographic Hashes

Cryptographic hash algorithms have a few important properties:

  1. They take an arbitrary amount of text and turn it into a (usually smaller) fixed-length code. Among other things, this makes cryptographic hash algorithms ideal for pass phrases. No matter how long the phrase is, the resulting hash code is a relatively small and fixed size (let’s say 128 or 512 bits or 32 to 64 bytes).
  2. Running the same piece of plain text through a cryptographic hash algorithm will always result in the same hash code.
  3. They should be as collision resistant as possible. That means that two different strings of plain text shouldn’t result in the same hash code. This is very important and I’ll discuss it later as well.
  4. The algorithm shouldn’t be reversible. If all you have is the resulting hash code, it should be mathematically infeasible to run the algorithm backwards (or run some variation of the algorithm or any algorithm at all for that matter) that changes the resulting hash code back into the original plain text.
  5. Changing the plain text input, even a tiny little bit, will cause significant changes in the resulting hash code. You shouldn’t be able to approximate the original text by using similar text, as they should result in wildly different codes. There should also be no resulting patterns where the occurrence of a sequence in plain text can be deduced from a sequence in the hash code.
From these properties, we can concoct a Hash-based password scheme. When a user creates a password, the password is run through a hash algorithm. The system stores the resulting hash code. When the user re-enters their password for authentication, the system runs the newly-entered password through the same hash algorithm, and then checks the results with the stored hash code. If both match, then we know we have the original password (due to properties 2 and 3 above). Note that we never stored the actual password, and because of property 4, we shouldn’t be able to algorithmically derive the original password from the stored code.


Wow! That was easy. Well, not so fast, cowboy.  We still have a number of vulnerabilities to account for. In order to secure a system, you have to know how people will attack it. You can buy and install the thickest titanium steel door with the most complicated tamper-proof lock and it will do absolutely no good if someone can just go around to the back and open a window to get in. That is what cyber attackers live for, and they are much better at this than most of us. If you just took the preceding section into account, you would be in for a world of hurt, so it would be a good idea to see just how attackers try to get passed the system.

When Dictionaries aren’t Your Friend

The number one reason to avoid real words is that a brute force attack normally has to consider every possible combination. But if you use normal words (and most people apparently do), the attacker can just look at a much smaller set – about 500,000 or so possible words in the English language, for example.

If you just relied on the scheme I detailed above, then the attacker doesn’t even have to resort to brute force. They can use the so-called Dictionary or Rainbow Table attacks. Basically, someone sets up a dictionary of hash codes for every possible word (more complex dictionaries have combinations of text, numbers, etc.). That way, if an attacker gets the stored hash code, their software just looks up the hash code in the dictionary or rainbow table, and viola, they have the corresponding plain text (and it took considerably less time than 13 trillion years).

“So what,” I hear some of you say, “nobody has access to the password storage.” Think again. This is exactly the sort of attack that set entire UNIX networks on fire decades ago. The older Microsoft LanMan scheme suffers from the same problem. Many banks, online shopping companies, and even government agencies have had their data stolen in the past couple of years alone. It can happen to you. In fact, I’ve worked for two companies that hired me after having compromised data.

Salt and Speed Kills Rainbows

In order to foil these attacks, you have to produce hash codes such that pre-generation is infeasible. The first step is what’s called Salt or Nonce. This means that you append a piece of random data to the password before hashing it. This helps to stop even common words from being susceptible to dictionary/rainbow table attacks, but it’s still a good idea to avoid common words since attackers can just use them in brute force guesses. The salt or nonce doesn’t have to be very long. Due to hash algorithm property #5 above, even a small change to the input drastically changes the resulting code. However, the salt or nonce should be of a significant enough size. Let me put it this way – if your salt was 1 bit (0 or 1), then attacker would have to double the size of his dictionary or rainbow table (to account for all the possibilities with either a 0 or 1 added to them). But that’s not bad in terms of the size of the data the attacker needs. However, each additional bit of salt or nonce exponentially increases the combinations (just like increasing the size of the password itself – same concept). At a certain point, it becomes totally infeasible to pre-generate a table of possible values.

In fact, most commonly available (albeit older) rainbow tables have up to 8 characters, so generally-speaking, your passwords should always be more than 8 characters (although I seriously recommend at least 16), and you’ll weed out most of the wannabe attackers out there.

More importantly, each hash code should have its own UNIQUE and COMPLETELY RANDOM salt value. Do not compute the salt based on the input or use the same salt for every password. This makes the salt value predictable and helps the attacker narrow the amount of data they need for a dictionary or rainbow table. The introduction of unique and random salt or nonce also means that two people using the same passwords will have wildly differing hash codes stored in the database, which is definitely a good thing. Ideally, the salt or nonce should be created using a cryptographic random number generator, which is vastly more unpredictable than a standard time/seed-based generator.

Of course, in order to use the password + salt, you need to validate using the same salt value later (when the user enters their password for authentication). Fortunately, the salt doesn’t have to be a secret. You can just store it with the password hash code.

If you think salt isn’t enough, there are other strategies you can use in addition of salt or nonce. One of them, which I’m pretty fond of, is iterations. This means repeatedly hashing the password + salt. Basically, you take the initial password plain text, add the salt, and hash it. Then, you take the password again, add the salt and resulting hash code from the previous round, and hash that. Then repeat a few thousand times (or more). If salting helps to deter lookup attacks, iterations make it almost impossible with current technology. Some schemes like MD5-Crypt use 1000 iterations, but I prefer 10,000 or more. Even that number is relatively fast (less than a second), and you only use it when someone creates a password or attempts a login. This also makes input brute force attacks that much slower.

Birthdays Ruin Security

Here’s a neat little bar game that people have been playing for a long time: Walk into any bar (or office, or anywhere that has more than 20 people) and bet that at least two people there have a birthday on the same day. Some of you are probably thinking this is a really fast way to part with your hard-earned cash, and wondering what kind of dork would attempt that. But in a group of 23 people, there is a slightly more than 50% chance of that happening! If the group is 57 or more, then the chance is more than 99%. For the math behind this little scam, Wikipedia “Birthday Problem” (it’s a fun little exercise, but this post is getting long as it is).

The principle behind this is called collision counting. In this case, it’s how many birthdays collide (on the same day) given the number of combinations. For cryptographic hashes, the same principle applies, but on a much, much larger scale (after all, there are only 365 days in a year for birthdays). Hash algorithm property #3 from above states that they must be as collision resistant as possible, but mathematically-speaking, such an algorithm would almost be susceptible to collisions by definition. A collision here means that two different pieces of plain text input result in the same hash code. A good hash algorithm makes this virtually impossible for most input you would care about, but physically it might actually still happen, and the math behind it all says that it probably will. Clever attackers can try to use the math behind the birthday collision problem to narrow down a brute force (a so-called birthday attack). In that case, they don’t have to find the one piece of input that results in the code – they can attempt to find one of two or more possible choices that will also succeed.

There is very little you can do here except to avoid hash algorithms that have a mathematical flaw which allows for the possibility of a feasible collision. Even collisions at the block level reveal weaknesses that can be exploited. Practically speaking, this means that you probably want to avoid MD5 and SHA1 and anything that came before them. In addition to the potential collision problems, the resulting code is also relatively small. A larger hash code usually helps in many ways, and I would recommend something that’s at least 256 if not 512 bits long (the SHA suite has a few variations that result in that size).

More the Merrier?

So if one hash algorithm is good, two should be awesome, right? Not necessarily. Combing two hash algorithms don’t make the result twice as strong. If you hash a password with MD5 and then again with SHA1, and concatenated the results, there are still inherent weaknesses. Antoine Joux postulated the concept of multicollision, and how concatenating hash codes doesn’t really make them stronger than their component parts. Google “Joux Multicollision” if you want to see all the gory mathematical details.

What about hashing the password with one algorithm and then feeding that into the other algorithm? Still no dice. You’d be at the mercy of the strength of the first algorithm. If the first algorithm was susceptible to and experienced a collision, then it would simply feed the same output to the second one – which almost makes the second one only as secure as the first one.

Bottom line is that it’s best to stick with salt or nonce + iterations, and pick a nice, secure, and proven hash algorithm. And if you are using a premade authentication system, then use these tips as criteria to evaluate the package.

Keyed Hashes

There’s a class of hash algorithms that depend on a key in addition to a hash algorithm (HMAC). Many block ciphers (a type of encryption algorithm) can also be used in a way that effectively makes them a hash algorithm, and they would also use a key as well. But again, the problem is that you have to deal with effective key management. There simply isn’t enough space on this post to deal with that topic. But definitely research it if you are curious.

Forgive and Forget is Divine, but not Secure

So what happens when some user (as is inevitable) forgets their password? A lot of web systems have an “I forgot my password” link, which does a number of different things depending on the site. The worst offenders email your password back to you. This is the most horrible idea ever. You might as well spam the user’s password all over the net. First of all, that email is riding around the net in plain text. Anyone sniffing traffic can intercept it. Secondly, almost every router/switch and server along the path now has a logged transcript of that email.

Unfortunately, forgetting a password is something that, when handled properly, is going to be an inconvenience to the user. But you know what? That’s OK. A small inconvenience is a small price to pay for forgetting your password in comparison to losing your bank account or an account that has a stored credit card attached to it (which would be a whole different security post...).

Part of the reason systems emailed passwords back to the user was that they figured if you are someone malicious attempting to snag the account, the password would only go back to the email of the person who originally registered the account. But as you can see, that really isn’t true. The password just gets smeared across the internet. In a recent breaking story, it turns out that it’s much easier than previously thought to redirect internet traffic due to a protocol security flaw, and you wouldn’t even know it. So don’t think that it’s unlikely someone would be able to see that email.

Who’s your daddy?

Another option is to reset or to allow the user to change the password when they forget. Of course, since the person attempting this operation is anonymous (after all, they’d be logged in if they could remember the password), you have to be careful so you don’t just let anyone reset or change anyone else’s password. You still have to be reasonably sure the person making the request is in fact who they claim to be. A lot of sites these days force a user to record an answer only they know, to some kind of a “security” question. Make no mistake; this is just another method of authentication, and one that is loaded with weaknesses. Since answering the question grants you access to the system – either immediately, or by allowing you to change the password – it is just another password in and of itself. However, this “password” (the answer) is usually small, a normal word, and directly linked to a single question. It is infinitely easier to brute-force! Remember that titanium-steel door? Well, you just opened the window and hung a “welcome” sign on it. You don’t have to be a hacker to exploit this system weakness. A recent divorcee discovered that she kept failing to log into her email. She kept typing in what appeared to be the wrong passwords, and kept having to reset them. It turns out that her soon-to-be-legal-ex kept changing the password on her by using the “security” question, and had stolen all her private communications with her divorce lawyer. The ex did know quite a bit about her life - after all, they were married for many years, so chances were definitely in his favor that he’d know many of the common security question answers she would use. Savvy users will type in answers that make little sense to anyone else, but the questions really lead the average person to type in the worst and weakest kind of entry keyword possible. It’s a horrible system to get people accustomed to.

You are the Weakest Link. Goodbye.

And the sad part is that you don’t even have to be foiled by a close relative or spouse these days. Just about anyone can get a hold of everything they need to get into your account via the security questions. Why? Because YOU are GIVING it away to everyone!

In almost any system, it’s often not the data or the encryption or any code that forms the weakest security link. It’s the people. Data thieves often resort to social engineering attacks rather than attacking the software itself. You are a lot easier to crack than most software if you aren’t careful. That is especially true today in the horribly insecure Web2.0 world.
See, social networking sites are like crack. People check MySpace and Facebook more often than they check on their children. People collect friends like kids collect Pokemon cards. Unfortunately, in the quest to acquire more friends than Jesus and be the most popular kid on the net, you happily publish every last little thought in your skull and every last little detail about your life, how you’re feeling, and what you are drinking or listening to at the moment, knowing that everyone in your friends’ list is just lapping up every inane scrap of brain vomit throughout the day and thinking about just how cool you are and how lucky they are to know you. Of course, they aren’t, but it makes you feel good to think so. But those data thieves are absolutely riveted! Hey, you have fans after all!

That Yorkie fanatic next door, the one with three of the yappiest four-legged mop-heads on the planet – what’s her security question? “What is your pet’s name?” And what’s her blog loaded with? Yep, you got it. Wonder how much money she has in her account today. And the funny part is that the thieves don’t even have to pretend to be Nigerians with a few extra million coincidently sitting in a dusty ownerless vault waiting for you to act now and help them transfer it to your account.

Sadly, it’s not just the average Joe who gets suckered. The crack is so potent that it happens to the experts. In Defcon (a hacker’s convention) at Vegas this year, some of the attendees were friended by (people pretending to be) a number of big-shot prestigious hackers – described as the kind who once got arresting for speaking about some government software vulnerability, who lurk in the depths of secret security mail lists and forums, known to the world only by their net nicknames, who write crypto-defeating math equations that make your brain bleed and the NSA wet their pants. The attendees were more than giddy to accept. And then the fun began. You can read all about these social engineering attacks on social networking site shenanigans on the Defcon official site.
As far as secret info you use for authentication, it’s best to heed rule #1 of information security – Trust No One.

Wolf in eBay Clothing

The other major social engineering attack on passwords is phishing. This is where some data thief sends you an email that looks like it came from eBay (or a bank or anywhere that has an account you really don’t want to lose), usually telling you that your account is suspended, and directs you to a link where you are supposed to log in and verify that you haven’t done something horribly wrong. But instead, the link takes you to some Malaysian website (which is probably also compromised) where a fake login page, that might or might not actually contain the word eBay, sends your password to a script that feeds it back to the data thief. Of course, if your account was closed or frozen, how are you supposed to log in? Oh well, minor details. But phishing is effective, especially among people who have internet access but aren’t very net savvy (like a presidential candidate who shall remain nameless or granny who just uses it to email the family pictures around). It’s effective because they trust that eBay wouldn’t lie to them, and that the page they are going to is in fact owned by eBay.

Server Mug Shots

The problem is that up to now, apps (especially web apps) mostly handle a one-way authentication. Under more secure environments, you have mutual (two-way) authentication. Not only does the software have to know who you are beyond doubt, the software has to identify itself beyond doubt to you.

Up to now, people simply trusted in the URL or the browser’s interpretation of the server’s SSL cert validity. But a lot of people don’t even look at that. It’s simply not obvious to non-savvy users. And even if you think you can tell that the URL is really going to eBay.com rather than www.istealidentities.com/ebay.com, that doesn’t really mean someone isn’t re-routing your traffic. This would seem to be an elaborate trick to pull off, but not that difficult to people who know how to exploit routing protocols flaws, or if there are compromised servers/routers/switches at an ISP.

One of the schemes becoming popular now is image authentication. When a user creates an account, they select a picture from a large gallery of simple every-day items. Only the software knows which image they selected. When they go back for a login, they type their username, but not password. The server then identifies itself by showing the user the image they previously selected. Now the user can type in their password, knowing (reasonably so) that the software isn’t some phishing site. Phishing sites typically aren’t very complicated or dynamic enough to even show a different image, but they also shouldn’t know what picture the user selected. Of course, the number of pictures directly relates to the strength of that authentication, and perhaps it would be better to use phrases, although I suppose the argument is that pictures are easier to remember. The problem is that most systems have no really visible server/software authentication to speak of, and people simply aren’t used to it (yet).

Don’t Come a-Knockin’

The basic point of all these bits of trivia and attack modes is to ensure that you get a system that is really up to par on password security. The system needs to strive to eliminate the feasibility of any attack mode, forcing only brute force guessing of the password, because under the right circumstances, attempting all possible combinations could take longer than the earth has been in existence. But when it comes to brute forcing a password, you can also set up another barrier – lockouts and notifications. It’s common for people to get a password wrong on any given attempt. They might forget whether a character is “3” or “4”, or maybe the Caps Lock is on. But if someone tries to guess incorrectly 500 times in a few seconds, it’s probably an attack. To really stall brute force attacks, you need a lockout. This means that after some small number of failures (let’s say 4 or 5), the system stops authenticating that user period. You can re-enable authentication for the user after a few minutes (5 to 15, for example). It doesn’t necessarily have to be a permanent lockout. This foils brute force by making it completely infeasible to run through large numbers of guesses. If it takes trillions of years to brute force all possible combinations for a given length of password when a server can run through a billion combinations a second, imagine if it is now forced to deal with 4 or 5 every 15 minutes. Also, it doesn’t hurt to notify the user that something might be up with the account. Maybe they have a disgruntled ex-employee trying to get into a system using a co-worker’s or admin’s account. It also pays to keep a log of such attempts and have notification so your I.T. team can investigate, and perhaps law enforcement as well, if it comes to that.

1 UNIX is a trade mark of The Open Group
2 LanMan and Microsoft are registered to the Microsoft Corporation
3 MySpace is a property of NewsCorp
4 Facebook hasn’t sold out (yet)
5 Pokemon is a property of Nintendo, 4Kids Entertainment, and Pokemon USA
6 The Weakest Link is a property of The BBC
7 eBay still owns itself
8 Nigeria still boggles me. They have billions in funds that nobody wants, yet people are starving and they want to scam you for the lousy 2 grand in your checking account. And apparently they have no idea who William Shatner is either. Same goes for their Hong Kong affiliates.
9 Malaysia doesn’t boggle me as much. I have three friends from there. I just think the .MY top level domain is cool.

posted @ Friday, August 29, 2008 11:46 AM